Understanding of Health and Public Health Behavior

Understanding of Health and Public Health Behavior
Theories
Understanding Public Health According to Winslow (1920) that Public Health (Public Health) is Science and Art: prevent disease, prolong life, and improve health, through “Community Organizing Efforts” to: (Notoatmodjo, 2003)
Improvement of environmental sanitation
Eradication of infectious diseases
Education for personal hygiene
Organizing medical services and treatments for early diagnosis and treatment.
Development of social engineering to ensure everyone is fulfilled the needs of a decent life in maintaining their health.
According to the American Medical Association (1948) Public Health Research Science is the science and art of maintaining, protecting and improving public health through community organizing efforts. From this limit it can be concluded that public health extends from dealing only with sanitation, sanitation techniques, curative medicine, preventive medicine to social science, and that is the scope of public health science.
Many disciplines are used as the basis of public health, among others, Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Medicine, Environmental Health, Sociology, Education, Psychology, Anthropology, and others. Based on this reality public health science is a multidisciplinary science (Liopagarra Literature Reviews).
But in broad outline, the disciplines that underpin public health sciences, or often referred to as the main pillars of Public Health Sciences include:
Public Health Administration.
Health Education and Behavioral Sciences.
Biostatistics / Health Statistics.
Environmental Health.
Community Nutrition.
Occupational Health.
Epidemiology.
Why is public health a multi-disciplinary science, because basically public health problems are multi-disciplinary, so the solution must be multidisciplinary. Therefore, public health as an art or practice has a wide range. All activities both directly and indirectly to prevent disease (preventive), improve health (promotive), therapy (physical, mental, and social) or curative, as well as rehabilitation (rehabilitative) health (physical, mental, social) are public health efforts. (Notoatmodjo, 2003).
Broadly speaking, efforts that can be categorized as art or the application of public health sciences include the following:
Eradication of diseases, both infectious and non-communicable.
Improvement of environmental sanitation
Improvement of residential environment
Vector Eradication
Public health education
Maternal and Child Health Services
Community nutrition development
Sanitary Monitoring of Public Places
Drug and Beverage Supervision
Fostering Community Participation
Factors Affecting Public Health Behavior
In the world of public health, we certainly understand Bloom’s theory, which states that the degree of public health is determined by environmental factors, behavior, health services, and heredity.
Here are some opinions about the understanding and aspects that affect a person’s behavior.
Public health behavior theory. Human behavior is the result of all kinds of experiences and interactions between humans and the environment which are manifested in the form of knowledge, attitudes and actions. Behavior is formed through a process and takes place in human interaction and the environment. The factors that influence the formation of behavior can be divided into two, namely internal and external factors. Internal factors include knowledge, intelligence, emotion, innovation and so on which serve to process stimuli from the outside.
External factors include the surrounding environment, both physical and non-physical such as climate, socio-economic, cultural and so on.
Behavior that is formed inside a person from two main factors, namely the stimulus which is a factor from outside oneself (external factors) and the response which is a factor from within the person concerned (internal factors). External factors or stimuli are environmental factors, both physical and non-physical environment in the form of socio-cultural, economic, political and so on. The most influential external factors in shaping human behavior are the social and cultural factors in which a person is located.
Internal factors that determine someone responding to external stimulus are attention, observation, perception of motivation, fantasy, suggestion and so on.
There are four ways to shape behavior, namely through positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment and extinction. If a response is followed by something pleasant, the response is positive reinforcement. When a response is followed by stopping or withdrawing something unpleasant, it is called negative reinforcement. Both positive and negative reinforcement will determine the outcome of the learning process. Both strengthen responses and increase the likelihood of repeating behavior learned.
Punishment will result in an unpleasant condition in an attempt to get rid of an unwanted behavior. The process of forming attitudes and behaviors takes place gradually and through the learning process obtained from various experiences or connecting experiences with learning outcomes.
Another opinion states that behavior is a person’s response or reaction to a stimulus (stimulation from outside). Therefore behavior occurs through the process of stimulation of the organism and then the organism responds (Skinner’s theory or Stimulus-Organism-Response theory). Based on S-O-R theory, human behavior is grouped into two, namely closed behavior and open behavior. Covert behavior occurs when the response to the stimulus is still not clearly observable by others (from outside).
A person’s response is still limited in the form of attention, feelings, perceptions, knowledge and attitudes towards the stimulus concerned. Forms of covert behavior that can be measured are knowledge and attitudes. Whereas overt behavior occurs when the response to a stimulus has taken the form of an action or practice that can be observed from outside.
Behavior is a function of interaction between person or individual and their environment. A person’s behavior is determined by many factors. Sometimes a person’s behavior is influenced by their abilities, some are because of their needs and some are influenced by their expectations and environment. Behavior is a person’s response to stimuli originating from within and from outside himself. This response can be passive or without actions such as thinking, thinking, acting or being active or taking action.