Cooperative Learning System
Cooperative learning is a system based on the reason that humans as individual beings are different from each other so that the logical consequences of humans must be social creatures, beings who interact with each other (Nurhadi 2003: 60)
Abdurrahman and Bintoro (2000) in Nurhadi 2003: 61 stated cooperative learning is a system in which there are interrelated elements. The various elements in cooperative learning are
Face to face interaction,
Individual accountability, and
Skills for establishing relationships between personal or social skills that are intentionally taught.
Roger and David Johnson said that not all group work can be considered cooperative learning. To achieve maximum results, five elements of the mutual learning model must be applied: Cooperative Definition
Face to face
Communication between members
Evaluation of group processes (Anita Lie, on Livingpurereligion Studied)
The cooperative learning model is very different from direct teaching. In addition to the cooperative learning model developed to achieve academic learning outcomes, the cooperative learning model is also effective for developing students’ social skills (Usman, 2002: 30).
So the pattern of group learning by way of collaboration between students can encourage the emergence of higher quality ideas and increase student creativity, learning can also maintain the social value of the Indonesian nation that needs to be maintained. Their mutual dependence motivates them to be able to work harder for their success, cooperative relationships also encourage students to value the ideas of their friends rather than vice versa.
The characteristics of cooperative learning are:
Students work in groups to complete learning material
Groups are formed from students who have high, medium and low skills.
Whenever possible, group members come from different races, cultures, ethnicities, and genders.
Appreciation is more group oriented than individual (Ibrahim, et al, 2000: 6).
Another important goal of cooperative learning is to teach students collaboration and collaboration skills. This skill is very important to have in a society where much of the work of adults is mostly done in organizations that are interdependent with each other and where society is increasingly culturally diverse (Ibrahim, et al, 2000: 9).
Meanwhile, according to Linda Lungren (1994: 120) in (Ibrahim, et al. 2000: 18) there are several benefits of cooperative learning for students with low learning achievement, namely: Understanding Cooperative
Increase the time spent on assignments
Your sense of self-esteem becomes higher
Improve attitudes towards science and schools
Dropout rates are low
Acceptance of individual differences is greater
Disruptive behavior becomes smaller
Interpersonal conflict is reduced
Apathy is reduced
Higher learning outcomes
Increases kindness, sensitivity and tolerance
Thus, cooperative learning reflects the view that humans learn from their experiences and active participation in small groups helps students learn important social skills, while simultaneously developing democratic attitudes and logical thinking skills.
1. Understanding Contextual Teaching Learning (CTL)
Contoxtual Teaching Learning (CTL) is a learning concept that helps teachers link material taught with real-world situations that encourage students to make connections between the knowledge they have and their application in daily life. Students ‘knowledge and skills can be obtained from students’ efforts to construct new knowledge and skills when they learn.
CTL learning involves seven main components of productive learning, namely, constructivism, questioning, finding, learning communities, modeling, and authentic assessment.
2. Foundation Philosophy
The cornerstone of the Contoxtual Teaching Learning philosophy is constructivism, which is a learning philosophy that emphasizes that learning is not merely memorizing, students must construct knowledge in their own minds. That knowledge cannot be separated into separate facts or propositions, but reflects skills that can be applied. Constructivism has its roots in the philosophy of pragmatism that was initiated by Jhon Dewey in the early 20th century which emphasized the development of students.
According to Zahorik, there are five elements that must be considered in the contextual learning practice.
Activation of existing knowledge (activating learning)
Acquiring existing knowledge (acquiring knowledge) by first learning as a whole, then paying attention to the details.
Understanding of knowledge (understanding knowledge), namely by compiling (1) hypothesis (2) sharing to others in order to get a response (validation) and on the basis of that response (3) the concept is revised and developed
Practicing that knowledge and experience (applaying knowledge)
Reflecting (reflecting knowledge) on the knowledge strategy
Cooperative Learning System