Cooperative Learning System

Cooperative Learning System
Cooperative learning is a system based on the reason that humans as individual beings are different from each other so that the logical consequences of humans must be social creatures, beings who interact with each other (Nurhadi 2003: 60)
Abdurrahman and Bintoro (2000) in Nurhadi 2003: 61 stated cooperative learning is a system in which there are interrelated elements. The various elements in cooperative learning are
Positive interdependence,
Face to face interaction,
Individual accountability, and
Skills for establishing relationships between personal or social skills that are intentionally taught.
Roger and David Johnson said that not all group work can be considered cooperative learning. To achieve maximum results, five elements of the mutual learning model must be applied: Cooperative Definition
Positive interdependence
Individual responsibility
Face to face
Communication between members
Evaluation of group processes (Anita Lie, on Livingpurereligion Studied)
The cooperative learning model is very different from direct teaching. In addition to the cooperative learning model developed to achieve academic learning outcomes, the cooperative learning model is also effective for developing students’ social skills (Usman, 2002: 30).
So the pattern of group learning by way of collaboration between students can encourage the emergence of higher quality ideas and increase student creativity, learning can also maintain the social value of the Indonesian nation that needs to be maintained. Their mutual dependence motivates them to be able to work harder for their success, cooperative relationships also encourage students to value the ideas of their friends rather than vice versa.
The characteristics of cooperative learning are:
Students work in groups to complete learning material
Groups are formed from students who have high, medium and low skills.
Whenever possible, group members come from different races, cultures, ethnicities, and genders.
Appreciation is more group oriented than individual (Ibrahim, et al, 2000: 6).
Another important goal of cooperative learning is to teach students collaboration and collaboration skills. This skill is very important to have in a society where much of the work of adults is mostly done in organizations that are interdependent with each other and where society is increasingly culturally diverse (Ibrahim, et al, 2000: 9).
Meanwhile, according to Linda Lungren (1994: 120) in (Ibrahim, et al. 2000: 18) there are several benefits of cooperative learning for students with low learning achievement, namely: Understanding Cooperative
Increase the time spent on assignments
Your sense of self-esteem becomes higher
Improve attitudes towards science and schools
Improve attendance
Dropout rates are low
Acceptance of individual differences is greater
Disruptive behavior becomes smaller
Interpersonal conflict is reduced
Apathy is reduced
Deeper understanding
Greater motivation
Higher learning outcomes
Longer retention
Increases kindness, sensitivity and tolerance
Thus, cooperative learning reflects the view that humans learn from their experiences and active participation in small groups helps students learn important social skills, while simultaneously developing democratic attitudes and logical thinking skills.
Cooperative Definition
1. Understanding Contextual Teaching Learning (CTL)
Contoxtual Teaching Learning (CTL) is a learning concept that helps teachers link material taught with real-world situations that encourage students to make connections between the knowledge they have and their application in daily life. Students ‘knowledge and skills can be obtained from students’ efforts to construct new knowledge and skills when they learn.
CTL learning involves seven main components of productive learning, namely, constructivism, questioning, finding, learning communities, modeling, and authentic assessment.
2. Foundation Philosophy
The cornerstone of the Contoxtual Teaching Learning philosophy is constructivism, which is a learning philosophy that emphasizes that learning is not merely memorizing, students must construct knowledge in their own minds. That knowledge cannot be separated into separate facts or propositions, but reflects skills that can be applied. Constructivism has its roots in the philosophy of pragmatism that was initiated by Jhon Dewey in the early 20th century which emphasized the development of students.
According to Zahorik, there are five elements that must be considered in the contextual learning practice.
Activation of existing knowledge (activating learning)
Acquiring existing knowledge (acquiring knowledge) by first learning as a whole, then paying attention to the details.
Understanding of knowledge (understanding knowledge), namely by compiling (1) hypothesis (2) sharing to others in order to get a response (validation) and on the basis of that response (3) the concept is revised and developed
Practicing that knowledge and experience (applaying knowledge)
Reflecting (reflecting knowledge) on the knowledge strategy

Knowledge and Developing the Potential of Education

Knowledge and Developing the Potential of Education
Understanding education is the process of learning activities of each individual or group whose aim is to improve the quality of mindset, knowledge and develop the potential of each individual. This educational process in daily life is better known as the learning process. Education is a process of learning from not knowing to knowing. Education is not only aimed at developing science, but more than that the most important thing is education on moral issues or human etiquette. Because no matter how smart someone is, if you don’t have manners or behave badly then it won’t be useful for the lives of many people.
The first stage that is very important in education is parents.
So it has become an obligation for parents to introduce education in various ways to their children from childhood to adulthood. And the next stage of education can be found in formal, non-formal, and informal learning. So that you get a full understanding, read on the understanding of education that we present below (Maisarmaisarah Literature).
Understanding education, parents who educate their children. Understanding Education According to Experts, If you have discussed about the definition of education in general, pay attention to the definition of education according to the following experts so that you better understand what education or education is.
Below is a review (Education Reviews)
1. Large Language Dictionary. Understanding education according to the Dictionary is the process of changing the attitudes and behavior of a person or group in an effort to mature themselves through teaching, training, process, and ways of educating.
2. According to Wikipedia. Education is the learning, skills, knowledge, and habits of a group of people who are passed down from one generation to the next generation through the process of teaching, training, and research.
3. Driyarkara. According to Driyakarya, education is an effort to provide customers with care and lift young people to be more human. Especially, in anticipating the development of an era that goes so fast. Important, so humans can still adjust as a role.
4. Marimba. He believes the notion of education is conscious guidance by education in physical and spiritual development for good things. Aimed at shaping personality to become a higher quality human being. To be useful for the community, home and nation.
5. Notoadmojo. Education or also called education is all efforts planned to influence other people both individuals, groups, or the community so that they do what is expected by education practitioners.
6. MJ Langeveld. Education is an adult human effort to guide underage humans to maturity. According to him also education is an effort to help children to carry out their life’s tasks, so that they can be independent, honesty, and responsible in a moral manner.

Educational Objectives. Education has several goals, including these:
Increase intelligence.
Changing human personality so that it has good character. Being able to control themselves. Improve skills. Increased creativity in what is learned. Educate humans to be better in the occupied field.
Kinds of Education. As explained above, education has three types or types, namely formal, non-formal education and informal education. The following explanation of various types of education:
1. Formal. This learning process is generally held in schools and there are applicable regulations and must be obeyed when they are following the learning process, then there are related parties who oversee the learning process at school.
In the world, formal education that can be taken by every individual is starting from elementary, junior high, and high school levels, to higher education.
2. Non-formal. Non-formal education is usually found in many neighborhoods, for example there are places to read and write education, then courses that are widely available in the environment such as car courses, music courses, and other courses.
3. Informal. While informal education is an educational pathway that is found in the family and the environment around the house.
In informal education there is an independent learning process and is carried out on the basis of awareness and a sense of responsibility held.
The results of informal education have been recognized the same as formal and non-formal education and were initiated by the government include: children must be educated from birth to adulthood, early education starts from the family. The family is a very important stage of education, because many children now because the family is a mess that greatly affects education in schools.

Marketing and Selling Differences in the Scientific Context

Marketing and Selling Differences in the Scientific Context
Many of us generalize between the notion of Marketing and Selling, and of course that is not entirely correct. And regarding these Marketing and Selling Differences, the more I dig after my personal experience is also involved in a Digital Marketing Agency, and find clients with the same perception between Marketing and Selling. Although it is not entirely wrong because usually the goals and measurements of a business are the sales generated, but it is also unfair if the goals set for a marketing campaign that are set will have an impact in the long term must be assessed in the short term.
So from that experience I tried again to stir up a few sources and get insights from several Agencies who also faced similar problems (the problem I meant was the leveling between goal marketing and selling with effort made, if an effort made was effort marketing then what measured should be the marketing, and vice versa). So what difference do we need to know? And why do we have to know the difference.
First I will try to discuss Marketing and Selling Differences in terms of the definition and context of scientific education.
According to Robert M. Donnelly on Makesureyoureadit Papers, who also writes articles that appear on the first page of Google if you type ‘Marketing vs. Selling’, marketing is creating demand on the customer’s mind so that they will eventually look for you. Whereas sales are chasing customers and asking them to place orders. For me Robert’s initial explanation is like Inbound Marketing and Outbound Marketing, both of them are Marketing right? But with a different method. Then Robert gives an analogy that is easier for us to understand, differences in marketing and selling can be compared to differences between brands and products.
Products and Brands. The products themselves are usually made or created by companies, made through the factory and put in stores or given to sales for later sale. As a common thing we encounter and public understanding of how a business works. An example is a motorcycle company, the assumption is that the motorbike will be sold by sales at their dealers.
Marketing and Selling Differences. Products in physical form, brands in ideas. While Brand is something that is present in the mind, mind, or wishful thinking.
Quoting Riess and Trout who say that “Mind is like a dripping sponge” (the mind is like a wet sponge) so to enter it is of course by squeezing and replacing what is already in it.
Robert illustrates that our mind is like an abstract product display window which he calls the Mental Product Grid, the picture is like a giant Cubic Ice Printer in each box that stores information about a particular brand. Some of us can store information for more than one brand, but usually not more than three brands.
In the courses that he organizes on marketing strategy, he often explains that we also have the name threshold for the brands we buy.
For some things that we buy there is an influence of quality preferences, and maybe other products in our opinion do not need a quality preference. For products that we consider to have quality in them, we often have several brands that we categorize as having unique “traits or characters” and for some products we can even only have one brand preference and no other alternatives.
For brands with qualities that we consider to have unique characters or characteristics, we usually rank first, second, third, or so on, depending on how much we can value. Then the nature or character preference chosen to sort the position depends on each of our own preferences.
For products that we think do not need quality preference, we usually keep categorizing with the “cheapest”, this is another position that we create in our mental product grid.
Our minds, which are like Ice Printers, put the brand in a different position. So based on the explanation above, Robert seems to illustrate that the brand we buy has positions in our mental product grid and is categorized into three categories, special, quality, and cheapest. If we care / like a certain product category then we will look for a special brand or have at least a perception of quality or more. If we don’t care about the product category, we will look for the brand that we think is the cheapest.
Consciously or unconsciously it actually has become the basis of our decisions in shopping. You can check it yourself while shopping, maybe half of what is in your basket contains things that are already known or have a unique and clear selling point (Unique Selling Point), while the remaining half are the cheapest brands in the window display category.
From the lengthy explanation of the Products and Sales above, Robert then explained that Marketing is about how to create these positions in the minds of customers and the costs spent by marketers to promote and advertise their brands to produce what is called “Brand Equity”, or the value that is the customer’s preference for the brand.
This relates to how to create unique selling points and consistently promote it so that it enters the mind and occupies the ‘position’ in the customer’s mental product grid.
Do you have an understanding of the product and brand understanding of the difference between marketing and selling. From Robert’s explanation, it can be concluded that selling activities are the process of selling products while Marketing is promoting the brand. Do you agree with this simple conclusion? Before you agree deeper, we should first resolve to the next Point.

Short-term Selling or Long-term Marketing

Short-term Selling or Long-term Marketing
The same thing was actually conveyed by Hitesh Bashin in another article with a similar topic regarding differences in Marketing and Selling. Where he explained that selling would be more focused on Products and Producers, and actually selling included in the part of Marketing activities, but only had a short-term goal of getting a portion of the market share. He also explained that this short-term goal did not consider careful planning to build a brand in the marketplace and win the competition through loyal customers.
Which ultimately means maximizing profits through maximum sales.
When the focus is on selling, business people think that after the production is complete the sales task will begin. And also it is the duty of a sales department to sell anything produced by the production department. Aggressive sales methods justify the means to achieve that goal and also the customer’s satisfaction needs that will be sacrificed.
Selling converts products into money for companies in a short time (Loycabegold General Science Information).
Marketing as a concept and approach is much wider than selling and is also considered dynamic because the focus is more on the customer than on the product. When selling struggles with the needs and desires of factories or marketers, marketing is more focused on consumers. The whole process to find and satisfy the needs of consumers.
Marketing consists of all activities related to product planning, pricing, promotion, and distribution of products or services. His job starts from identifying consumer needs and does not stop until customer satisfaction after using the product is received.
A long series of activities, including production, packing, promotion, pricing, distribution and secondary selling. Consumer needs are the driving force of all these activities. Profits are ignored, but they are built on a long journey. Mind share is more important than Market Share in Marketing.
From the explanation of 2 plus 1 people above it seems quite clear the fundamental difference from Marketing and Selling. And no doubt both are important efforts in a business. Where selling is an effort to keep the business going with a fast turnaround of money, while marketing is more about how the business can place a brand for the long-term sustainability of a business.
Now maybe the question is in what position is your business now? Are you in a position to Sell Products? Or market your brand?
The cost and effort to ‘just’ sell a product may not be as big as marketing the brand as described above. But it seems too naive if we as business people with insight do not consider at all how the marketing strategy for our brand.
So after knowing the difference between marketing and selling, you can identify your business position, and determine the best strategy that can be applied to your business. And place goals or expectations in accordance with the method and strategy you choose.
Key Features SELLING in Marketing vs. Selling = Emphasizing on Products, Companies making products first, Management oriented in Sales volume, Planning short-term oriented in terms of products and markets now, Emphasizing to the needs of sellers, Viewing business as a good production process, Maintaining existing technology and reduce costs, different departments work separately, according to their respective tasks and needs, costs determine prices, view customers as the end point of a business.
Main Features of Marketing vs. Selling MARKETING = Emphasizing the needs and desires of consumers, first the company looks for what is needed and cooled by new customers then determine how to distribute its products to satisfy those desires.
Management oriented towards profit. Long-term oriented planning in terms of current products, new products, future markets and future growth. Emphasizing the needs and desires of buyers. Look at business as a production process of customer satisfaction. Emphasis on innovation from existing technologies and reducing each layer, to provide better cost value to customers by adopting superior technology. All business departments are integrated, and have the same goal of customer satisfaction. The consumer determines the price, and the price determines the cost. View the customer as the end point in the business as the main goal of a business

Industrial Revolution 4.0 in Education and the World of Business

Industrial Revolution 4.0 in Education and the World of Business
Some time ago the Telematics event in America in 2019 was held in New York on Thursday (04/01/2019). On this occasion the Coordinating Minister for the Economy of America Nasution was also present to give his views on the Industrial Revolution 4.0, which was influenced by the digital world.
For Darmin, there is no comfort zone in this revolution, because the condition of the technological world is rapidly changing, as is currently the case with the dynamics of the Industrial Revolution 4.0.
As we know that we are currently in the era of the 4th Industrial Revolution (Industry 4.0).
Where this era is colored by artificial intelligence (artificial intelligence), the era of super computers, genetic engineering, nanotechnology, automatic cars, innovation, and changes that occur in exponential speeds that will have an impact on the economy, industry, government and politics.
“The world is changing. It can’t be avoided, it’s just how we use it as much as possible so that the benefits are greater than its disadvantages, “Darmin said. In his speech, Darmin explained, on the one hand digital brings benefits and opens up vast opportunities for a country to make a big leap, the other hand there are also challenges.

Industrial Revolution 4.0
The Coordinating Minister for American Economy Darmin Nasution when giving his views on the Industrial Revolution 4.0 which was influenced by the digital world (Loquacious Research).
Then, what are the benefits and advantages of a digital platform according to Darmin Nasution?
Here are 3 benefits of digital platforms in the Industrial Revolution Era 4.0:
1. Innovation. The emergence of new business models cannot be separated from the ability of innovators to design strategies through digital platforms. In America alone, digital innovation takes place not only in the retail world, but also in education, catering, health, and even in the legal world. The more people who participate, there will be healthy competition based on innovation, thus providing added value to the community.
2. Inclusivity. Through digital platforms, all kinds of services can easily reach many people in various regions. The result is inclusiveness that benefits people who live far from metropolitan areas, so they can enjoy digital services.
3. Efficiency. Of course with the development of digital platform innovation, there will automatically be efficiency, both in terms of manufacturing and marketing. This of course requires intelligence from business people to optimize their strategies in the digital world.
Industrial Revolution 4.0
In his speech, the Coordinating Minister for the American Economy, Darmin Nasution explained, on the one hand the digital brought benefits and opened up broad opportunities for a country to make a big leap, on the other hand there were also challenges.
If there are benefits derived from digital platforms in the Industrial Revolution Era 4.0
there are definitely challenges that will be faced.
But what are the challenges?

The following are digital platform challenges in the Industrial Revolution Era 4.0:
1. Full Problems. The digital economy that controls society certainly affects the public behavior that used to be the people shopping at retail stores, now starting to switch to online shopping. Social and cultural aspects like this also need to get the attention of parties such as the government and the community so that not many retail stores will fall one by one.
2. Inequality. Among all the positives, job loss due to being replaced by a robot or all the current work that can be done by a system is the most terrible scourge.
The automation caused by the Digital Revolution 4.0 needs to be taken seriously so that people can prepare skills for the future so that unemployment in America can be suppressed.
3. Competition. Unhealthy competition is worth watching out for. For example, if there is a monopoly platform, it is feared that there will be no checks and balances. If one platform is too dominating, then the user cannot make the choice of service that is most suitable for them.
In addition, in order to face the industrial revolution 4.0, the national industrial sector needs a lot of improvement, especially in the aspect of technology.
Because mastery of technology is the main key to determine the competitiveness of America in the industrial era 4.0. And in dealing with industry 4.0, America also needs to improve the quality of its Human Resources (HR). Because if it is not improved, then American industry will be increasingly left behind from other countries. If we do not increase capacity and competitiveness in the priority (industrial) sectors, we will not only be unable to achieve aspirations, but will be crushed by other countries that are better prepared in the global and domestic markets.

Tips for Maintaining Consistency To Be able to Write Every Day

Tips for Maintaining Consistency To Be able to Write Every Day
Making articles for a student is no longer an obligation but has become a demand that must be met. Therefore students must be productive in making articles. But not all students can be productive considering the many schedules outside of college.
Writing articles is certainly not an easy job for anyone especially for novice students, it takes effort and consistent practice to write. For the sake of pursuing the target of having a blog many visitors are not strange if there are students choosing the instant way by utilizing the services of writing articles, rewriting articles in journals or newspapers, searching for English blogs then translating the contents of articles, and even copying the writings of others.
According to Studied Journal References Access on Mahasiswa Information Papers, An educational information blog or website that always updates articles will certainly get some benefits. With the condition that the articles made always pay attention to the quality and consistency. One reason I write this article is of course based on my personal experience. How difficult it is to maintain that focus and concentration. There are always “obstacles”. In the end the postponement and cancellation of writing articles becomes a consequence that is always overlooked. In the end I had to work out strategy by strategy to immediately “get rid of” those obstacles.
And you know what? These obstacles are actually trivial things, but I always take them lightly, which in the end I rarely pay attention and arrange them in such a way.
There are several factors that cause some beginner students like me to not be able to maintain a routine of posting every day. The causes are also varied, including not having time because they are busy with other work, or because they do not have fresh ideas every day and also spicy things like lingering habits on social media, viewing YouTube, and so forth.
Then how do you stay consistent making effective articles every day ???
Here are some tips so you can consistently write effective blog articles every day:
“Prepare Ideas from the Beginning” One reason students are absent from writing is none other than because they do not yet have the idea of what articles to write.
To avoid this, you should prepare article writing ideas before entering the posting schedule. The ideas can be developed from articles that have been published on your blog or by developing your discussion topic. You can also get ideas from articles on other web pages from home and abroad.
“Create a Writing Schedule” makes a blog post. Next you need to do is create a scheduling program. For example in a week you are targeting 6 articles, then you try to keep writing every day. Then, perfect the article that you wrote when the schedule for publication of the article arrived. This will make it easier for you, because you have prepared it from the beginning.
Creating a writing schedule is useful to help remind tasks that must be done and must be completed.
“Wake Up Writing Habits Every Day” Building writing habits every day is not as easy as imagined. But if you have a commitment, all that can certainly be done. Although at first there will be pressure because you have to write the exact deadline, but if you try hard and keep doing it, over time you will get used to and everything will become easier so that after a long time your articles will also have good quality and always waiting for by the reader.
No other way. Get used to writing every day then you will know what to do to get used to writing every day. At least this will facilitate you in doing college activities.
“Focus Focus Focus” Habits such as lingering on social media, looking at the blog statistics dashboard, tweaking templates and so on really disturb your focus so that your time will only be wasted. The solution to keeping the focus on posting articles every day is to make a tight schedule.
Because to produce a good blog article, a student must stay focused.
“Self Motivation” makes a blog post. The most important thing is to motivate yourself, because encouragement arising from yourself will create comfort without coercion from others. So that you feel enjoy when writing and of course full of brilliant ideas. If you are getting bored when writing, at least take a minute to refresh your burden, or you can do it with other things that can make you excited again, for example writing while listening to your favorite music.
Creating a blog is not as easy as imagined, you must try to always update, along with that the article created must also be of quality to the reader. Hopefully the tips above can help you to remain consistent in writing articles and your website page will look more professional because it contains fresh articles.
And on this occasion, Digital Entrepreneur ID opens a place for you students or anyone who likes to write both for personal blogs and content fillers on websites to be connected to each other and open up opportunities to make money from the blogging world. Immediately register yourself here or click the image below.

Learn to Start a Content Marketing Strategy

Learn to Start a Content Marketing Strategy
Usually, people search the web for relevant information. Content marketing has the duty to provide this. In today’s digital world, people are inundated with advertisements. As a result, businesses struggle to get the attention of consumers.
A study shows that more than 70 percent of users prefer to get information from articles and not from company advertisements. Now, to reach their target audience, an increasing number of businesses rely on a promising new strategy: content marketing.

What Is Content Marketing?
The purpose of browsing is to find relevant information and high quality content. This means that text, image and video content must provide relevant and interesting information for people to search for information on the internet. According from Online Marketing Research Studies, Content marketing is a practice that creates and distributes content that is entertaining, informative and helpful to customers.
Good content then directs customers back to your brand website, where you can capture leads and sell products. Successful content marketing can create a positive appeal for your brand – without the hassle of product marketing.
Preserve Good Content
Capture and have visitor interest. Your biggest priority is to display good content to continue to strengthen the relationship between them and your company. If so, the website can generate traffic for months or even years. Persuade visitors to continue reading, clicking and exploring.
In addition, Google rewards websites that display good content by increasing rankings in search results.
Content Marketing in Practice
Looking at the chart above, it is clear that the popularity of “content marketing” searches has increased sharply since 2011. Especially this year.

Because of the increase, many large companies, such as Red Bull and Zambrut Journal, have placed themselves in content marketing. According to a recent survey conducted by the famous “Content Marketing Institute”, B2B companies in the United States invest, on average, around 30 percent of their marketing budget for content marketing.
In addition, the number of small and medium-sized companies has increased sharply taking advantage of web opportunities in providing efficient marketing content.
Channels for communication today are more diverse than ever, which means there is virtually no limit to the reach of publications. That is why, many companies maintain their own blogs; publish e-books and infographics; or produce videos to show their expertise.
Content generated in business is quite diverse. The web shop offers professional products or purchasing advice; members of management comment on current developments in the company on company blogs; and brand-name product manufacturers publish e-books and provide tips on the best ways to use company products.
What Can Content Marketing Do?
content marketing. Get to know the benefits and efficiency of a content marketing strategy first.
According to a study by a communications agent, Waggener Edstrom, 61 percent of marketers surveyed saw an increase in sales figures after implementing a content marketing strategy. Content marketing also helps businesses to achieve a number of other company goals, including:
Lead Generation: If customers are impressed with the content provided, there is a high probability that they will be willing to provide their contact details – whether it’s in the product’s interest or just to get more content.
Increased reach and name recognition: Often, high-quality content addresses trending topics.
Or controversial things that are spread through social media. By taking advantage of this trend, companies can increase excellence and achieve it.
Character development: Disseminating high-quality publications on a regular basis allows companies to build themselves and to strengthen the company’s brand.
Formation of customers: Content that offers useful information connecting customers to the company in the long run. By consistently offering good content, companies generate interest on their website and attract users to return to visit.
Checklist for Content Marketing Success. Content marketing.
What are your target audience’s interests? Look for the interests of your target visitors. From a content marketing perspective, only content that is truly relevant to your target audience can contribute to your company in achieving its goals.
High Quality Content: well written and interesting content. Avoid typos and make structured writing easy to read.
Unique Content: Unique content increases ranking in search engines. On the other hand, content that is less useful for visitors will be shifted to the back page.
SEO: Successful online content is not only unique, but also well-written and focused on specific target groups, this is to optimize search engines with keywords, titles, clear structure and useful links.
That’s the special tips for starting content marketing.
Leads: prospective buyers. It starts with people who are interested in your product and then make the decision to buy the product.
Traffic: traffic that occurs between computers that are interconnected and connected by the internet. If the language is simple: the number of people who access our website.